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Disease description:
Congenital and inherited eye disorders are often breed related. Additionally, some ocular diseases have strong tendencies to affect certain breeds later in life.

Disease description in this species:
The alphabetized list of dog breeds below includes many of the commonly reported ocular disorders that are proven or presumed to be inherited. If an inheritance pattern is known and/or if a DNA test is available, the information is denoted after the disease. Detailed descriptions of each disease can be found in the related chapters.

Akita
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Entropion
Glaucoma
Microphthalmia with multiple ocular defects, strabismus
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal dysplasia
Uveodermatologic syndrome

Alaskan Malamute
Cataract
Cone degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Glaucoma
Persistent pupillary membranes (PPMs)
Retinal dysplasia
Uveodermatologic syndrome

American Bulldog
Distichiasis
Glaucoma
Multifocal retinopathy – autosomal recessive, DNA test available

American Cocker Spaniel
Cataract – presumed autosomal recessive
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Corneal dystrophy- posterior polymorphous, stromal
Distichiasis
Ectropion
Entropion
Glaucoma
Imperforate lacrimal punctum
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS)
Macroblepharon
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia
Sudden acquired retinal degeneration
Third eyelid gland prolapse

American Eskimo Dog
Cataract
Lens luxation – inheritance not defined, DNA test available
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available

American Pit Bull Terrier
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

American Staffordshire Terrier
Cataract
Distichiasis
Entropion
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

Australian Cattle Dog (Queensland Heeler/Blue Heeler)
Cataract
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Glaucoma
Lens luxation – inheritance not defined, DNA test available
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

Australian Shepherd
Cataract – autosomal co-dominant, DNA test available
Collie eye anomaly – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Coloboma/staphyloma without microphthalmia
Cone degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Iris coloboma
Iris hypoplasia
Micropapilla
Multifocal retinopathy – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Multiple ocular defects with microphthalmia – presumed autosomal recessive with incomplete penetrance
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

Basenji
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy- endothelial
Corneal dystrophy- epithelial, stromal
Optic nerve coloboma
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available

Basset Hound
Cataract
Dacryops
Distichiasis
Ectropion
Entropion
Glaucoma
Glaucoma – inheritance unknown, DNA test for primary open angle glaucoma only
Macroblepharon/macropalebral fissure
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia
Third eyelid cartilage anomaly/eversion
Third eyelid gland prolapse

Beagle
Cataract
Congenital stationary night blindness – autosomal recessive
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Glaucoma – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Microphthalmia with multiple ocular defects
Optic nerve hypoplasia
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal dysplasia
Sudden acquire retinal degeneration
Tapetal degeneration
Third eyelid gland prolapse

Bearded Collie
Cataract
Collie eye anomaly – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia

Belgian Malinois
Cataract
Chronic superficial keratitis (pannus)
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal dysplasia
Vitreous degeneration

Belgian Tervuren
Cataract
Chronic superficial keratitis (pannus)
Distichiasis
Micropapilla
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – presumed autosomal recessive
Retinal dysplasia

Bernese Mountain Dog
Cataract
Distichiasis
Entropion
Ectropion
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Systemic histiocytosis

Bichon Frise
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Meibomitis
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia
Sudden acquired retinal degeneration
Vitreous degeneration

Bloodhound
Cataract
Ectropion
Entropion
Macroblepharon
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia
Third eyelid gland prolapse

Boerboel
Multifocal retinopathy – autosomal recessive, DNA test available

Border Collie
Cataract
Ceroid lipofuscinosis – inheritance unknown, DNA test available
Collie eye anomaly – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Lens luxation
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – suggested X-linked
Retinal dysplasia
Vitreous degeneration

Borzoi
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Micropapilla
Multifocal retinopathy
Optic nerve hypoplasia
PPMs
Retinal degeneration

Boston Terrier
Cataract – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Corneal dystrophy – endothelial
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Glaucoma
Imperforate lacrimal punctum
PPMs
Vitreous degeneration

Boxer
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Ectopic cilia
Ectropion
Macroblepharon
Persistent corneal erosions
PPMs
Vitreous degeneration

Briard
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy – autosomal recessive, DNA test available

Brittany
Cataract
Distichiasis
Lens luxation
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia
Sudden acquire retinal degeneration
Vitreous degeneration

Brussels Griffon
Cataract
Distichiasis
Lens luxation
Macroblepharon
Optic nerve coloboma
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal dysplasia
Vitreous degeneration

Bull Terrier
Cataract – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Persistent hyaloid artery
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
PPMs
Vitreous degeneration

Bullmastiff
Cataract
Distichiasis
Ectropion
Entropion
Glaucoma
Macroblepharon
Micropapilla
Multifocal retinopathy – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal dominant, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia
Optic nerve hypoplasia

Cairn Terrier
Cataract
Ocular melanosis (pigmentary glaucoma) – presumed autosomal dominant
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs

Cardigan Welsh Corgi
Cataract
Distichiasis
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – presumed autosomal recessive, DNA test available

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
Cataract
Congenital KCS and ichthyosiform dermatosis
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Ectopic cilia
Entropion
KCS
Multiple ocular defects with microphthalmia
Pigmentary keratitis
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia
Vitreous degeneration

Chesapeake Bay Retriever
Cataract
Distichiasis
Entropion
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive
Retinal dysplasia

Chihuahua
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – endothelial
Distichiasis
Iris atrophy
Meibomitis
PPMs
Vitreous degeneration

Chinese Crested
Cataract
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
KCS
Lens luxation – inheritance unknown, DNA test available
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Vitreous degeneration

Chinese Shar Pei
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Entropion
Glaucoma
Lens luxation
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Third eyelid gland prolapse

Chow Chow
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – endothelial
Ectropion
Entropion
Glaucoma
PPMs

Collie
Cataract
Collie eye anomaly
Congenital stationary night blindness – presumed autosomal recessive
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Ectopic cilia
Microphthalmia
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

Curly-Coated Retriever
Cataract
Choroidal hypoplasia
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Optic nerve coloboma
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia
Vitreous degeneration

Dachshund
Cataract
Ceroid lipofuscinosis – inheritance unknown, DNA test available
Chronic superficial keratitis (Chronic superficial keratitis (pannus))
Coloboma/staphyloma
Corneal dystrophy – endothelial
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Dermoid
Distichiasis
Iris coloboma
Micropapilla
Multiple ocular defects with microphthalmia
Optic nerve coloboma
Optic nerve hypoplasia
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Punctate keratitis
Retinal degeneration – inheritance unknown, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia
Sudden acquired retinal degeneration
Uveodermatologic Syndrome

Dalmatian
Cataract
Ceroid lipofuscinosis – presumed autosomal recessive
Dermoid
Distichiasis
Entropion
Glaucoma
Iris coloboma
Iris sphincter dysplasia
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia

Doberman Pinscher
Cataract
Distichiasis
Enophthalmos
Entropion
Ligneous conjunctivitis
Multiple ocular defects with microphthalmia
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous – presumed dominant, incomplete penetrance
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia

English Setter
Cataract
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

English Springer Spaniel
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Ectropion
Entropion
Glaucoma
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia – autosomal recessive
Sudden acquire retinal degeneration
Vitreous degeneration

English Bulldog
Cataract
Distichiasis
Ectopic cilia
Ectropion
Entropion
KCS
Macroblepharon
Prolapse gland of the third eyelid
Retinal dysplasia

Flat-coated Retriever
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Ectopic cilia
Entropion
Glaucoma
PPMs
Retinopathy

French Bulldog
Cataract – inheritance unknown, DNA test available
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Dermoid
Distichiasis
Entropion
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia
Third eyelid gland prolapse

German Shepherd Dog
Cataract – congenital, presumed autosomal dominant
Cataract – cortical, presumed autosomal recessive
Chronic superficial keratitis (pannus)
Cone degeneration – autosomal recessive
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Limbal melanoma
Micropapilla
Optic nerve hypoplasia
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal dysplasia
Third eyelid everted cartilage

German Shorthaired Pointer
Cataract
Cone degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Distichiasis
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal dysplasia
Third eyelid everted cartilage

Giant Schnauzer
Cataract
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia
Third eyelid everted cartilage

Golden Retriever
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Dacryops
Distichiasis
Ectopic cilia
Entropion
Glaucoma
Iridociliary cysts
Limbal melanoma
Persistent corneal erosions
Pigmentary uveitis
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

Great Dane
Cataract
Distichiasis
Ectropion
Enophthalmos
Entropion
Glaucoma
Iridociliary cysts
Macroblepharon
Multiple ocular anomalies with microphthalmia, associated with partial albinism – presumed autosomal dominant
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Third eyelid everted cartilage
Third eyelid gland prolapse

Great Pyrenees
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Entropion
Micropapilla
Multifocal retinopathy – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – presumed autosomal recessive
Retinal dysplasia

Greater Swiss Mountain Dog
Cataract
Distichiasis
Ectropion
Entropion
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia

Greyhound
Cataract
Chronic superficial keratitis (pannus)
Lens luxation
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
Retinal degeneration
Vitreous degeneration

Havanese
Cataract
Distichiasis
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal dysplasia
Vitreous degeneration

Irish Setter
Amblyopia and quadriplegia – autosomal recessive
Cataract
Distichiasis
Entropion
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Third eyelid everted cartilage

Irish Wolfhound
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Iridociliary cysts
Micropapilla
Optic nerve hypoplasia
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – presumed autosomal recessive
Retinal dysplasia
Third eyelid everted cartilage

Italian Greyhound
Cataract
Lens luxation
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – unknown inheritance, DNA test available
Vitreous degeneration

Jack Russell Terrier
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Glaucoma
Lens luxation – unknown inheritance, DNA test available
PPMs
Vitreous degeneration

Japanese Chin
Cataract
Distichiasis
Glaucoma
Persistent hyaloid artery
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Vitreous degeneration

Keeshond
Cataract
Distichiasis
Entropion
PPMs

Komondor
Cataract
Entropion
PPMs

Labradoodle
Achromatopsia – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Cataract – autosomal recessive or presumed dominant with incomplete penetrance
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Ectropion
Entropion
Glaucoma
Iridociliary cysts
Limbal melanoma
PPMs
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
Persistent hyaloid artery
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Vitreous degeneration

Labrador Retriever
Achromatopsia – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Cataract – autosomal recessive or presumed dominant with incomplete penetrance
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Ectropion
Entropion
Dacryops
Distichiasis
Glaucoma
Iridociliary cysts
Limbal melanoma
Oculoskeletal dysplasia – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
PPMs
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
Persistent hyaloid artery
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia – presumed autosomal recessive
Vitreous degeneration

Lhasa Apso
Cataract
Distichiasis
Ectopic cilia
Imperforate lacrimal punctum
KCS
PPMs
Third eyelid gland prolapse

Maltese
Cataract
Distichiasis
Entropion
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – presumed autosomal recessive
Sudden acquired retinal degeneration

Mastiff, English
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – endothelial
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Ectropion
Entropion
Iridociliary cysts
Macroblepharon
Multifocal retinopathy – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal dominant, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

Miniature Pinscher
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Micropapilla
Optic nerve hypoplasia
PPMs
Vitreous degeneration

Miniature Schnauzer
Cataract – autosomal recessive
Ceroid lipofuscinosis – presumed autosomal recessive
Distichiasis
KCS
Microphthalmia with congenital cataract – autosomal recessive
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal dysplasia
Sudden acquired retinal degeneration
Vitreous degeneration

Newfoundland
Cataract
Distichiasis
Ectropion
Entropion
Glaucoma
Iridociliary cysts
Macroblepharon
PPM
Retinal dysplasia
Retinal degeneration
Third eyelid gland prolapse

Norfolk Terrier
Lens luxation – inheritance unknown, DNA test available

Norwegian Buhund
Cataract – pulverulent, presumed autosomal dominant
Retinal dysplasia

Norwegian Elkhound
Cataract
Distichiasis
Ectropion
Glaucoma
Iridociliary cysts
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

Norwich Terrier
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Lens luxation – inheritance unknown, DNA test available
PPMs
Vitreous degeneration

Old English Sheepdog
Cataract
Coloboma/Staphyloma
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Micropapilla
Multiple ocular anomalies with microphthalmia
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal detachment
Retinal dysplasia
Uveodermatologic syndrome
Vitreous degeneration

Papillon
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Micropapilla
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia
Vitreous degeneration

Pekingese
Cataract
Distichiasis
Ectopic cilia
Entropion
KCS
Macroblepharon
Retinal degeneration

Pembroke Welsh Corgi
Cataract
Distichiasis
Persistent corneal erosions
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia
Vitreous degeneration

Pomeranian
Cataract
Distichiasis
Entropion
Meibomitis
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Vitreous degeneration

Poodle (Toy, Miniature, Standard varieties)
Cataract
Cone degeneration
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Ectopic cilia
Glaucoma
Imperforate lacrimal puncta
Meibomitis
Micropapilla
Microphthalmia
Optic nerve hypoplasia
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Vitreous degeneration

Portuguese Water Dog
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Multiple ocular anomalies with microphthalmia
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

Pug
Cataract
Entropion
Distichiasis
Micropapilla
Pigmentary keratitis
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia – presumed autosomal recessive
Sudden acquired retinal degeneration
Vitreous degeneration

Rat terrier
Cataract
Distichiasis
Lens luxation – inheritance unknown, DNA test available
PPMs

Rhodesian Ridgeback
Cataract
Distichiasis
Entropion
PPMs

Rottweiler
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Entropion
Iridociliary cysts
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal dysplasia

Saint Bernard
Cataract
Dermoid
Ectropion
Entropion
Macroblepharon
Multiple ocular anomalies with microphthalmia
PPMs
Third eyelid gland everted cartilage

Samoyed
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Glaucoma
Oculoskeletal dysplasia – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – X-linked, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia – presumed autosomal recessive
Uveodermatologic syndrome

Scottish Terrier
Cataract
Ligneous conjunctivitis
Ocular melanosis (pigmentary glaucoma)
PPMs
Vitreous degeneration

Sealyham Terrier
Cataract
Distichiasis
Lens luxation – inheritance unknown, DNA test available
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia – presumed autosomal recessive

Shetland Sheepdog
Cataract
Collie eye anomaly
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
KCS
Optic nerve coloboma
PPMs
Punctate keratitis
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Uveodermatologic syndrome

Shiba Inu
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Glaucoma
PPMs
Vitreous degeneration

Shih Tzu
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Ectopic cilia
Glaucoma
KCS
Micropapilla
Optic nerve hypoplasia
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal detachment
Vitreous degeneration

Siberian Husky
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Entropion
Glaucoma
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – X-linked, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia – presumed autosomal recessive
Uveodermatologic syndrome
Vitreous degeneration

Silky Terrier
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Vitreous degeneration

Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier
Cataract
Choroidal hypoplasia
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Multiple ocular defects with microphthalmia
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Retinal dysplasia

Standard Schnauzer
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – presumed autosomal recessive
Retinal dysplasia
Vitreous degeneration

Sussex Spaniel
Ectropion
Distichiasis
Iris coloboma
KCS
Macroblepharon
Persistent hyaloid artery
Retinal dysplasia

Tibetan Spaniel
Cataract
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Distichiasis
Entropion
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available

Tibetan Terrier
Cataract
Ceroid lipofuscinosis
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Lens luxation – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Vitreous degeneration

Toy Australian Shepherd
Cataract – autosomal co-dominant, DNA test available
Collie eye anomaly
Coloboma/staphyloma
Cone degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Iris coloboma
Iris hypoplasia
Micropapilla
Multifocal retinopathy – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Multiple ocular anomalies with microphthalmia – presumed autosomal recessive with incomplete penetrance
Persistent hyaloid artery
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – autosomal recessive, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

Vizsla
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Entropion
PPMs
Prolapse of the gland of the third eyelid
Vitreous degeneration

Weimaraner
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
Entropion
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Third eyelid cartilage eversion

West Highland White Terrier
Cataract – presumed autosomal recessive
KCS
Microphthalmia
Ocular melanosis (pigmentary glaucoma)
PPMs
Retinal degeneration
Retinal dysplasia
Vitreous degeneration

Whippet
Cataract
PPMs
Vitreous degeneration

Yorkshire Terrier
Cataract
Corneal dystrophy – epithelial, stromal
Distichiasis
KCS – acquired, congenital
Lens luxation – unknown inheritance, DNA test available
Ligneous conjunctivitis
PPMs
Retinal degeneration – unknown inheritance, DNA test available
Retinal dysplasia

Diagnosis
Diagnostic Tests: Complete ocular examination (with and without pupil dilation) is done to look for ocular abnormalities.

Clinical Signs
Vary depending on ocular disease.

Etiology:
Genetic, hereditary

Sex predilection:
None

Age predilection:
None

Diagnostic procedures: Diagnostic results:
None

Treatment/Management/Prevention:
Veterinarians are encouraged to inform breeders of the value and availability of annual eye certification exams by board-certified veterinary ophthalmologists, especially prior to breeding. If an ocular disease is reported, the certifying organization (i.e. OFA in the United States, BVA/KC/ISDS Eye Scheme in the UK) will provide breeding advice based on the significance of the condition in regards to vision and/or its very strong evidence of heritability. Currently ten disorders receive an unequivocal recommendation against breeding in all breeds. These include glaucoma, KCS, cataract, lens luxation/subluxation, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV)/persistent hyperplastic tunica vasculosa lentis (PHTVL), retinal detachment, retinal degeneration (generalized progressive retinal atrophy, retinal dysplasia- geographic or detached forms, and optic nerve coloboma or hypoplasia. With increased awareness and screening examination, decreased incidence and/or elimination of hereditary eye diseases in purebred dogs may be possible. See the appropriate Associate chapters for sources of genetic tests.

References:

1) Genetics Committee of the Am Coll Vet Ophthalmol: Ocular Disorders Presumed to be Inherited in Purebred Dogs. , 8 ed. 2015.
2) Hereditary Eye Diseases in Dogs. In Practice Canine Health Science Schemes 2010.
3) Optigen
4) Animal Genetics UK
05 Mart 2018
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